If you go to court for non-payment of rent in the District of Columbia, you are entitled to request a protective order. That means, you can tell the judge you want your tenant to pay the rent into the court registry until the case is resolved. Protective orders don't deal with back rent, only the rent from the day of the first court date forward, so if you sue a tenant for five months of back rent and come to court on March 1st, the protective order can start March 1st. The back rent is resolved at trial. The tenant can also request they pay the rent into the registry. The tenant can also request the amount of rent be reduced because of housing code violations, so be prepared to show the property is in good shape. A protective order allows you to come back to court if the tenant doesn't pay and ask for sanctions, such as striking the tenant's jury demand or answer, or in some cases entering judgment in your favor. That's the law.
Now let's look at the reality. If you have a protective order and your tenant is paying into the registry you can't access that money. You are still required to pay expenses for the property and do repairs although you won't be getting any rent. You may get that money when the case is over, but if you need that money to pay your mortgage and utilities it might not help you at that point. While there are ways to try to get money out of the registry before a case ends, they aren't easy. If the tenant is willing you could agree the rent will be paid to you directly until the case is resolved. Many tenants won't agree to that, but sometimes creative solutions can be found. Landlord and Tenant cases in DC can drag on for months or even a year, so having the protective order put in place correctly and enforced is extremely important for your financial health and future.
If you are starting a nonpayment case or in the middle of a case that you can't resolve, contact me.